Operation Paperclip:The CIA and the Nazis (Video)
How U.S. Helped Nazi Scientists (an interesting article from 1988)
Dixie A. Engesser
"What happened reads like a thriller, all the more sinister because it is true. Bower`s extensive interviews with participants and meticulous research in the archives of the War and State departments, chronicles an operation gone bad. Scientists were kidnapped and blackmailed. Documents were falsified and Nazi background deleted. When exposure threatened ``Overcast,`` it became ``Paperclip,`` so-called because paper clips were used to identify the folders of applicants to the program.
One such applicant was Arthur Rudolph, director of the Saturn V rocket project at NASA`s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. In September 1943, less than three years before his arrival in the United States, Rudolph became the production manager of the Nordhausen Rocket Center in the Harz Mountains of Germany. Under his direction inmates from Buchenwald were used as forced labor; 20,000 of them died from exhaustion, starvation, disease and murder at the whim of the S.S. guards. Rudolph was deported from the United States in 1984 when the paper clip fell from public file and his background became public.
Why did the military turn a blind eye to the scientists` war crimes?" [(Read more.)http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1988-07-24/features/8802130151_1_war-crimes-arthur-rudolph-nordhausen-rocket-center]
"Immediately after WW11 ended the United States and Russia started searching for German military and scientific secrets. [...] they regarded the scientists as the people who had brought Germany close to winning the war.
The first problem occurred when the first batch of rounded up [Nazi] scientists arrived in the United States. It was blatant they knew more, much more than they had been given credit for. The original idea had been..." [(Read more.) ]
The first problem occurred when the first batch of rounded up scientists arrived in the United States. It was blatant they knew more, much more than they had been given credit for. The original idea had been to interview them, debrief them and then send them back to Germany, but on finding out the extent of the knowledge they held this was out of the question. the were simply far to valuable to let go.
The War Department decided they would keep these men and women in the United states and learn from them in order to update and perfect techniques hitherto unknown or unsuccessful. As stated, this was a problem because US law expressly forbade official members of the Nazi party to live and work in the United States and most of the people in the group were Nazis. The President, Harry Truman, was convinced these scientists could not only help the United States get back on its feet after the war, but that they would put the USA on a path that would enable them to become a technological and scientific superpower.
In September 1946 Project Paperclip was sanctioned by Truman. This allowed selected scientists to be brought into the US and although Truman stated that none of them should be Nazi Party members all of those in authority knew that it would be impossible to find scientists with the knowledge the United States wanted that weren’t members of the forbidden party. As a paper exercise all of the dossiers on those scientists The Joint Intelligence Agency wanted to stay were sent to the Department of Justice, who predictably refused visas to all of those on the list on the grounds that they were ‘ardent Nazis’ The then director of the Intelligence agency Bosquet Wev felt that they were more of a security risk if they were sent back than they would be if they stayed. With the full knowledge of the CIA director, Allen Dulles the files of the scientists were rewritten with no mention of their Nazi Party affiliation.
At some point Allen Dulles met with the leading Nazi Intelligence leader Reinhart Gehlen and over a period of months Gehlen gave Dulles intelligence that he could have only dreamed of. Dulles delivered this to the CIA who used it to set up the projects that later morphed into MK-ULTRA, OPERATION MIDNIGHT CLIMAX and ARTICHOKE.
By 1955 over 750 German scientists has US citizenship and most held high status positions within the American scientific community. Not only had these people held Nazi Party membership but some were formally members of the Gestapo. Amongst those given residency were doctors and scientists who had conducted experiments on humans in concentration camps.
Some of those given citizenship were:
Kurt Blome who experimented with bubonic plague on prisoners of war. He was hired by the US Army Chemical Core two months after being aquitted at Nuremberg. This aqittal came even though he had admitted publically to taking part in human experimentation.
Arthur Rudolph was the director of a factory that used forced labour and saw 20,000 people die from beatings and starvation. He designed the rockets used for the Apollo programme and fled back to Germany in 1984 when his war record came to light.
Werner Von Braun designed the V2 rocket that pummelled England. He became NASA’s associate administrator in 1970 after working for some time at the Marshall Space Flight Centre and achieved minor celebrity status as one of Walt Disneys experts on World of Tomorrow.
The list goes on and on and on.
Project Paperclip was retired in 1957, not because of any feelings of wrongdoing, but because [...]"
"The Evolution of Project MKULTRA
With the CIA and National Security Council firmly established, the first in a series of covert brain-washing programs was initiated by the Navy in the fall of 1947.
Project CHATTER was developed in response to the Soviet’s "successes" through the use of "truth drugs." This rationale, however was simply a cover story if the program were to be exposed. The research focused on the identification and testing of such drugs for use in interrogations and the recruitment of agents. The project was officially terminated in 1953.
The CIA decided to expand their efforts in the area of behavior modification, with the advent of Project BLUEBIRD, approved by director Allen Dulles in 1950.
Its objectives were to:
(1) discover a means of conditioning personnel to prevent unauthorized extraction of information from them by known means
(2) investigate the possibility of control of an individual by application of special interrogation techniques
(3) investigate memory enhancement
(4) establish defensive means for preventing hostile control of agency personnel
In August 1951, Project BLUE BIRD was renamed Project ARTICHOKE, which evaluated offensive uses of interrogation techniques, including hypnosis and drugs.
The program ceased in 1956. Three years prior to the halt of Project ARTICHOKE, Project MK-ULTRA came into existence on April 13, 1953 along the lines proposed by Richard Helms, Deputy Director of Central Intelligence (DDCI) with the rationale of establishing a "special funding mechanism of extreme sensitivity."
The hypothetical etymology of "MK" may possibly stand for "Mind Kontrolle." The obvious translation of the German word "Kontrolle" into English is "control." A host of German doctors, procured from the post war Nazi talent pool, were an invaluable asset toward the development of MKULTRA. The correlation between the concentration camp experiments and the numerous sub-projects of MKULTRA are clearly evident.
The various avenues used to control human behavior under MKULTRA included:
materials "LSD" being the most widely dispensed "material"
A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKULTRA abroad. MKULTRA/DELTA materials were used for harassment, discrediting or disabling purposes.
[...]" (Read more here.) (http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_mindcon02.htm)